When I was studying for my CELPIP exam I got material from them. Unfortunately, I can not put the PDF for the public because it has a watermark with my personal email. But I can put you here what it says.
CELPIP's thirteenth error as they state:
A common CELPIP error involves the present perfect verb tense. It is often confused with the present simple, the past simple, and the present perfect progressive.
We often hear the present perfect in news broadcasts: A tornado has struck southern Ontario, causing extensive damage. Notice how we’re focusing on the present result of a past event. We also use the present perfect to describe states leading up to the present, past events that occurred at indefinite times, and repeated actions leading up to the present.
When to Use It
Continous State Leading to Present
|Indefinite Past Event||Habits Leading to Present||Present Result|
I have lived in Canada for two years
|I've also lived in Cuba and France||I've often asked myself why I moved so often||I've grown tired of moving, so I want to stay in Canada|
|Meaning||Paste state extending over period of time up to present||Past events that occurred at unstated times. When is not important.||Repeated past action. Often modified by frequency adverb.||Present Perfect tells past cause of present result. Focus is on result.|
|Often confused with||Present simple||Past simple||Present perfect progressive||Past simple|
If the past event has no connection with the present, we don't use the present perfect; we use past simple instead.
- Howard Carted has discovered King Tut's tomb in 1922.
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