When I was studying for my CELPIP exam I got material from them. Unfortunately, I can not put the PDF for the public because it has a watermark with my personal email. But I can put you here what it says.

CELPIP's third error as they state:

Some word groups ending in periods aren’t really sentences; they’re sentence fragments, lacking what it takes to stand alone. A sentence (1) must have at least one independent clause with a subject and a finite verb (i.e., one that shows tense) and (2) must not start with a subordinating word that makes it a dependent clause. (See “Beware,” below.) A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence; it must be attached to an independent clause. Similarly, a phrase of any kind must be attached to an independent clause.

To fix a fragment, we often attach it to the sentence before or after it, perhaps with a comma. Sometimes we have to rewrite the fragment.

A subordinating conjunction placed at the start of an independent clause makes that clause dependent, unable to stand alone.

  • Dependent: Since I will get back to you tomorrow.
  • Independent: I will get back to you tomorrow.

Subordinating conjunctions include because, since, (al)though, even though, if, unless, when(ever), while, until, where(ever), (every/any)where, whereas, and others. The relative pronouns which, that, who, and whom also subordinate a clause.

Causes

Clauses

  1. Adverbial clause:
    I miss Miguel. Though I accept his reasons for leaving. -> I miss Miguel, though I accept his reasons for leaving.
  2. Adjective clause, nonrestrictive
    Please attend our class. Which will be on Sunday. -> Please attend our class, which will be on Sunday.
  3. Adjective clause, restrictive
    Let's visit the old school. Where we met long ago. -> Let's visit the old school where we met long ago.
  4. Noun clause
    Miguel knows for sure. That he won't become a teacher -> Miguel knows for sure he won't become a teacher.

Phrases

  1. Prepositional phrase
    Miguel walks his cat early every morning. At 6:30 a.m. -> Miguel walks his cat early every morning at 6.30 a.m.
  2. Infinitive phrase
    We went to Ottawa. To visit the Parlament. -> We went to Ottawa to visit the Parlament.
  3. Participial phrase
    I saw you at the show. Sitting in the front row. -> I saw you at the show, sitting in the front row.
  4. Appositive phrase
    I'd like to adopt a dog. A young male, if possible. -> I'd like to adopt a dog, a young male, if possible.

Verbs

  1. Detached compound verb
    Our teachers study 7 hours a day in a row. And then take a break. -> Our teachers study 7 hours a day in a row and then take a break.

Good luck!

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