When I was studying for my CELPIP exam I got material from them. Unfortunately, I can not put the PDF for the public because it has a watermark with my personal email. But I can put you here what it says.

CELPIP's fifth error as they state:

The relative pronoun which used by itself refers to things or animals, but in which (formal) and where (less formal) can refer to places, e.g., countries, cities, buildings, and rooms (the office where [or in which] I work). We can also use where and in which with some abstract nouns like situation, activity, case, example, experience, system, and society. (This is a case where [or in which] caution is recommended.)

A common source of confusion is the difference between using a relative pronoun as the clauses’s subject and using it as the clause’s object. We don’t use where as the subject of an adjective clause:

This is the bank. The bank accepts my cheques. NOT: This is the bank where accepts my chequesIn adjective clauses, where can be used as the object: This is the bank. I deposit my cheques here. This is the bank where I deposit my cheques..

The relative pronoun which can be either the clauses’s subject (the cheque which bounced) or its object (the cheque which I deposited). As a subject, that is more common than which. 

How to Choose Relative Pronouns as Objects of Adjective Clauses of Place

  1. Very formal: The house in which we live.
  2. Less formal: The house where we live.
  3. Informal: The house where we live in. The house that we live in. The house we live in.


  1. Avoid redundant prepositions: The house in which we live in.
  2. Don't add a preposition at the end of the where-clause. If a preposition is an integral part of the phrasal verb then leave it. The house where we live in. The house where you take me out. Receptio area where you check in.

Good luck!

blog comments powered by Disqus