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When I was studying for my CELPIP exam I got material from them. Unfortunately, I can not put the PDF to the public because it has a watermark with my personal email. But I can put you here what it says.

CELPIP's twentieth-sixth error as they state:

Sound substitution errors happen when a speaker replace a sound in a word with different, incorrect sound. For example, if a speaker is trying to say the word "vat" and substitutes the /v/ sound with the /f/ sound, the result will be the word "fat". This error is quite serious because it changes the meaning of the word and therefore the message as well.

By far the most common sound substitution errors are with vowel sounds. English has five vowel letters (a,e, i, o and u), but there are many more vowel sounds. As indicated, sound substitution can lead to miscommunications. For example, if you say "it's note me" when you meant to say "it's not me," your intended message might not be understood.

All sounds are created, in part, by the positioning of the mouth. Below is a chart that uses keywords to show the thirteen basic vowel sounds in North American English. It also shows the different jaw and muscle functions used to create each vowel sound. When your jaw is high, your mouth is almost closed, when low, it is open. The muscles of your mouth can be tense, like when you smile, or lax when neutral or relaxed. Note: The three sounds in blue are called diphthongs, and they change position when spoken. For example, the vowel sound in the word boy starts with the jaw at mid-level and the muscless lax as in but, then the jaw and tension change until the vowel sounds like the one in beat.

How to Make the Correct Vowel Sounds

Jaw Muscles Key Word Examples
High

Tense

Lax

beat boot

bit book

Mid

Tense

Lax

bait boat

bet but boy

Low

Tense

Lax

bat

bought bout bite

Beware

Diphthongs are not two separate sounds (syllables). They are fluid sounds that start as one vowel sound then evolve into another.

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